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Bibliometrics: Citation Analysis and Research Impact: Citation Impact - Author & Article Level (H-Index, Citing, Ranking)

Citation Impact - Author & Article Level

Author Level - Total citations, or average citation count per article, can be reported for an individual author or researcher. Many other measures have been proposed, beyond simple citation counts, to better quantify an individual scholar's citation impact.[20] The best-known measures include the h-index[21] and the g-index.[22] Each measure has advantages and disadvantages,[23] spanning from bias to discipline-dependence and limitations of the citation data source.[24] Counting the number of citations per paper is also employed to identify the authors of citation classics.[25]

Citations are distributed highly unequally among researchers. In a study based on the Web of Science database across 118 scientific disciplines, the top 1% most-cited authors accounted for 21% of all citations. Between 2000 and 2015, the proportion of citations that went to this elite group grew from 14% to 21%. The highest concentrations of 'citation elite' researchers were in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Switzerland and Belgium. 70% of the authors in the Web of Science database have fewer than 5 publications, so that the most-cited authors among the 4 million included in this study constitute a tiny fraction.[26]

Article Level - One of the most basic citation metrics is how often an article was cited in other articles, books, or other sources (such as theses). Citation rates are heavily dependent on the discipline and the number of people working in that area. For instance, many more scientists work in neuroscience than in mathematics, and neuroscientists publish more papers than mathematicians, hence neuroscience papers are much more often cited than papers in mathematics.[10][11] Similarly, review papers are more often cited than regular research papers because they summarize results from many papers. This may also be the reason why papers with shorter titles get more citations, given that they are usually covering a broader area.[12]

 Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The h-index