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OCLC - REALM Project (REopening Archives, Libraries, and Museums)
Phase 2 - Systematic literature review
This Phase 2 review includes analysis and summary of findings from available scientific literature on SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) through mid-August 2020. This review focused on studies of how the virus is spread, virus attenuation on commonly found materials, and effectiveness of prevention and decontamination measures.
Key takeaways from the review
How the virus spreads
- Droplets. SARS-CoV-2 is generally understood to spread primarily through virus-containing water droplets expelled from infected persons from sneezes, coughs, speaking, and other respiratory activities. Evidence has also suggested that other pathways for spreading the virus may include:
- Aerosols. Breathing air that the virus is suspended in, such as after an aerosolization event (e.g., a sneeze)
- Fomites. Touching surfaces of objects where the virus has been deposited (sometimes called fomites), which can occur through exhaling or otherwise depositing virus-containing droplets on the surface.
- Environment. Environmental factors, including temperature and humidity, have been identified as influential in the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, higher temperatures, higher humidity, and increased intensity of ultraviolet (UV) light (e.g., sunlight) seem to lead to SARS-CoV-2 decaying more quickly. However, additional research is needed to understand the complexities of these variables’ impact on the virus and its transmission.
- Ventilation. Some evidence has suggested that HVAC systems and other air circulation mechanisms can contribute to spreading the virus through the air. On the other hand, poor ventilation may also lead to airborne virus remaining in indoor environments longer. However, the impact of these systems on people contracting the virus requires further study.
- Surfaces. Very few studies from the review period reported novel empirical research about the survival of SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces, which highlights the REALM lab results’ contribution toward this area of investigation.
Prevention and decontamination
Researchers suggested several options for reducing the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in environments, which may help prevent transmission among people in those environments:
- Frequent handwashing or hand sanitizing
- Wearing a mask that covers the mouth and nose
- Social distancing and reduced indoor occupancy
- Good air ventilation and open/outdoor spaces
- Applying certain forms of UV light or increased heat
- Applying disinfectants to contaminated surfaces and objects.
Notes for the reader
As you read this systematic literature review, keep in mind a few key points:
- The research and information captured in the findings include both peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed studies. In the interest of publishing emerging research related to the COVID-19 pandemic as quickly as possible, publication has been expedited rather than waiting for time-intensive peer review.
- The studies included in the review have been conducted by different researchers, under different conditions, likely using different concentrations—and possibly sources—of the virus. This makes it difficult for a reviewer to make a straight comparison across studies; and, interpreting the results may be challenging for readers without a science background.
- The review includes findings for industries, such as health care, that operate under considerably different constraints and risk factors than do libraries, archives, and museums (LAMs). However, it was important to consider a broad range of available research to determine what may be applicable to LAM operations and identify what research gaps exist. The research captured in the review does not represent recommendations or guidance for LAMs.
- The Phase 1 literature review was released in June 2020.
- A helpful resource for those interested in tracking the "known unknowns" about this virus is the DHS Master Question List for COVID-19 (caused by SARS-CoV-2)
Download the systematic review
NewsBank Hot Topics
The Hot Topics area of Access World News highlights current topics and the broad coverage in Access World News.
Click here for current collection of Hot Topics in the News Hot Topics
For news and information about Coronavirus (COVID-19) click here
For Special Reports
RefWorks - End-User Training Recording Now Available
Through 2020 Karger is sharing research data and findings relevant to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak with the Topic Article Package: Coronavirus (COVID-19) .
Taylor & Francis
Taylor & Francis provides the research community with free access to COVID-19 research here.
American Psychological Society
Novel Coronavirus Information Center
Latest research and news on COVID-19
The BMJ - Coronavirus (covid-19): Latest news and resources
Berlin Philharmonic Digital Concert Hall
The Metropolitan Opera
Met launches “Nightly Met Opera Streams,” a free series of encore Live in HD presentations streamed on the company website during the coronavirus closure
Edinburgh University Press (EUP)
Edinburgh University Press have released free Virtual Issues of Medieval Studies and Shakespeare.
Both Virtual Issues will be available for free until the end of 2020!
1. The Medieval Studies Virtual Issue provides articles across the humanities, from literary studies, the arts, history and more
2. The Shakespeare Virtual Issue is a list of hand-picked articles from across our catalogue of journals, dedicated to the Bard, his work and reception across both history and literary studies.
Our blog gives you all of the information you need on how to access our free sample issues.
NEWSBANK's : Access World News
Clarivate - BioWorld
Clarivate's daily newsletter covering the life sciences landscape, BioWorld, provides complimentary access to COVID-19 coverage.
Click here to access more than 400 articles published to date, and check back daily for additional articles
The Royal Society
Following our decision to make our relevant COVID-19 content free to access, we have now decided to remove all access controls on our journals for the time being.
Because the paywall will be down, this means that you will have to access additional content for researchers here
Scitrus : Novel Coronavirus Content Free to Access
Coronavirus Free Access Collection
Cambridge University Press has made a collection of more than 80 relevant book chapters and journal articles freely available on Cambridge Core. Articles are drawn from journals including Epidemiology & Infection, Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology and from Animal Health Research Reviews, among others. Further articles will be added to the collection once they have been published.
Audio books, Virtual museums and Broadway shows
JoVE is Changing the Way Science is Done
Paris Art Museum
Paris Musées, a collection of 14 museums in Paris have recently made high-res digital copies of 100,000 artworks freely available to the public on their collections website. Artists with works in the archive include Rembrandt, Monet, Picasso, Cézanne, and thousands of others.
Remote Learning Resources and COVID-19 Content from AccessMedicine
The Association of Research Libraries, BioOne and their Publishing partners
In collaboration with the Association of Research Libraries, BioOne and their publishing partners have made articles related to coronavirus available via open access through 2020.
Emerald Insight free material
Research on COVID-19 and the management of epidemics and pandemics is free for anyone to access and Emerald have also made this available with full text and data mining rights to PubMed Central and the World Health Organisation repository. Emerald will continue to make relevant research freely available on this site.
Emerald is a digital-first, open publisher and will continue to be available throughout this public health crisis.
Temporary free access to all Microbiology Society journal content
The Microbiology Society is temporarily removing the paywall from their journals’ platform, www.microbiologyresearch.org.
Access will be free to all until further notice.
SABINET: FREE LEGISLATIVE UPDATES
Canadian Science Publishing
To support all researches during the Covid-19 pandemic, EDP Sciences has
opened the journals content on our site from 2018-2020 so it is freely available for all to read
Cochrane Library : Special Collections on Covid-19
WWIS - free reasearch on Covid-19
ProQuest Coronavirus Research Database
ProQuest just announced the launch of a Coronavirus Research Database in response to the rapidly growing need for authoritative content related to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). The database has been automatically enabled at no cost for all ProQuest platform customers, and can be accessed at search.proquest.com/coronavirus. The new cross-disciplinary resource enables researchers to search and discover full-text articles, dissertations and other content from key publishers in one place.